Small Science:对话韩国蔚山国立科学技术研究所Jong-Beom Baek教授

WILEY旗下新的开放获取(OA)旗舰刊Small Science 近日发表了来自韩国蔚山国立科学技术研究所(UNIST) Jong-Beom Baek教授课题组的综述论文,概述了多孔稠合芳族网络(P-FANs)领域的研究趋势及其在不同领域的可能应用,包括质子传导,催化,气体存储,超级电容器和光电器件等,对有机框架材料的研究未来提出了展望。

阅读原文:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smsc.202000007

Jong-Beom Baek教授在碳材料领域研究多年,近年来Baek教授的研究兴趣也逐渐转移到有机骨架基的能量转换材料领域。Small Science特别对话了Baek教授,他介绍了课题组目前的研究重点和未来的研究兴趣,特别是谈到了对日益蓬勃的有机框架材料领域的目前存在问题的看法,在访谈中他也饶有兴致地和我们谈到了走上科学之路竟然基于被化学老师误解考试作弊的经历,同时他也谈到能否保持热情在科学生涯中是至关重要的。

SMSC: Could you briefly introduce your research?

Baek: I am a professor/director of the School of Energy and Chemical Engineering/Center for Dimension Controllable Organic Frameworks at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea. After receiving Ph.D. from the University of Akron, USA (Polymer Science, 1998), I joined the Wright‐Patterson Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). I returned to South Korea to take a position as an assistant professor at Chungbuk National University in 2003 and moved to UNIST in 2008. My current research interests include the synthesis of 2D and 3D fused aromatic network (FAN) polymers and chemical modification of carbon‐based materials for multifunctional applications, including catalysts, opto‐electronic devices, and organic magnets.

我是韩国蔚山国立科学技术研究所(UNIST)能源与化学工程学院/维度可控有机框架中心的教授/主任。在美国阿克伦大学获得博士学位(高分子科学,1998年)后,我加入了Wright‐Patterson空军研究实验室(AFRL)。2003年,我回到韩国,在忠北国立大学担任助理教授,2008年,我转到UNIST工作。我目前的研究兴趣是2D和3D有序多孔芳香族聚合物(FAN)的合成和化学活化碳基材料及其应用,包括催化、光电器件和有机磁体。

SMSC: What got you interested in science in the first place? What is the most attractive thing as a scientist?

Baek: I grew up a small town without electricity and toys during my childhood. I made all toys for myself and my playground was nature, which taught me science in nature. During school life, I was exceptionally good at science courses compared with other ones. Thus, my academic status was ordinary. Hence, teachers open misunderstood me, suspecting my unusual performance in science courses was based on cheating. Later, the misunderstanding was resolved, when I continued to be even better than top-tier students in science courses. This talent smoothly attracted me to study in science.

The most attractive thing doing science is “exciting” when I conceived a something new idea. The journey to realize the idea makes me too much excitement into insomnia. Sometimes, I come to lab to see new results at any time. A new scientific discovery gives me a full of joy like having a newborn baby.

我在一个没有电和玩具的小镇长大。所有的玩具都是我自己做的,我的游乐场就是大自然,它教会了我自然的科学。在学校生活中,我的理科课程比其他课程都要优秀。但是我的学习成绩很普通。因此,老师误会我,怀疑我在理科课上的不寻常表现是基于作弊。后来,当我在理科课程上继续表现得比一流的学生还要优秀时,这种误会就消除了。这种天赋吸引了我去学习科学。

做科学最吸引人的事情就是当我有了一个新想法的时候,我感到很“兴奋”。在实现这个想法的过程让我兴奋得失眠。有时,我随时来实验室看新的结果。一项新的科学发现给我带来了像有了一个新宝宝一样的快乐。

SMSC:Who have influenced your career and thinking the most?

Baek: A chemistry teacher at high school gave me an insight to be a scientist. The very teacher misunderstood me badly. In my class, the best student of the school was sitting right behind me. One day, the test results of chemistry exam were announced. I scored perfect 100 and the best student got 96 missing one answer. However, the teacher suspected me that I might cheat the chemistry test. The teacher tried to punish me. I defended myself explaining that how the cheating student got perfect score but not the best student. Later, the teacher trusted me having talent in science and strongly supported me.

高中的一位化学老师给了我成为科学家的洞察力。正是那位老师严重误解了我。在我班上,全校最好的学生就坐在我后面。一天,宣布了化学考试的结果。我得了满分100分,最好的学生漏了一个答案,得了96分。然而,老师怀疑我可能会在化学考试中作弊。老师想惩罚我。我为自己辩护,解释为什么作弊的学生得到了完美的分数,但不是最好的学生。后来,老师相信了我在科学方面的天赋,给予我大力的支持。

SMSC: How do you see the future of carbon nanomaterials (or organic framework materials) as future advanced catalyst for clean energy?

Baek: I have been working on both carbon nanomaterials and organic framework materials. Starting form fullerene (C60), carbon nanomaterials have longer active research history and two Nobel prizes went to C60 and graphene. Thus, although gleaning is remaining, researches on carbon nanomaterials seem almost saturated for academic researches. Now, I believe that it is time to turn over the baton to industries for commercialization.

On the other hand, active researches on organic framework materials have relatively shorter history. Now, researches in this field are blooming due to the availability of possible structures and functional groups. Potential applications of organic framework materials must be unlimited compared with carbon nanomaterials. Unfortunately, however, current organic framework materials are based on using self-correcting reversible reactions to construct well-ordered crystalline structures, which are unstable. Organic framework materials formed by these reactions allow easy characterization for structural analysis, but they are not stable enough for practical applications. Now, it is time to focus on constructing stable organic framework materials with high crystallinity for real diverse applications. To do that, the formation of stable structures should be based on irreversible reactions.

我一直在研究碳纳米材料和有机框架材料。碳纳米材料从富勒烯(C60)起步,具有较长的研究历史,C60和石墨烯获得过两次诺贝尔奖。因此,尽管仍有研究遗漏存在,但对碳纳米材料的学术研究似乎已经饱和。现在,我认为是时候把接力棒交给可以商业化的产业了。

另一方面,对有机骨架材料的活跃研究历史相对较短。目前,因其结构和官能团的可用性,这一领域的研究正而蓬勃发展。与碳纳米材料相比,有机骨架材料的应用潜力是无限的。然而,目前的有机骨架材料是基于使用自修正可逆反应来构建有序的晶体结构,这是不稳定的。这些反应形成的有机骨架材料易于表征,从而能解析出明确结构,但其稳定性不高,不适于实际应用。现在,是时候把重点放在构建稳定的有机框架材料与高结晶度,以实现真正的应用。要做到这一点,稳定结构的形成必须建立在不可逆反应的基础上。

SMSC: What’s your next project?

Baek: My group leads four research fields: (1) mass production of graphitic nanoplatelets (PNAS, 2012), which have been commercialized in 2013; (2) non-precious metal-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (Chemical Reviews, 2015); (3) ruthenium on stable organic framework materials as catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (Nature Nanotechnology, 2017). I started company named after the Ru@C2N catalyst (www.ruc2n.com); (4) the first-time realization of organic ferromagnetism (Chem, 2018).

Now, my group is mainly focusing on materials for energy conversion. For example, catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, nitrogen reduction to ammonia using mechanochemistry (Nature Nanotechnology, 2020, in press). I believe that an ideal hydrogen carrier is ammonia to realize hydrogen economy in near future.

我的课题组引领了以下四个研究方向:(1)石墨烯纳米片的量产(PNAS, 2012),已于2013年商业化; (2)非贵金属氧还原反应催化剂; (3)稳定有机骨架材料上的钌作为析氢反应催化剂。我创办了一家以Ru@C2N催化剂命名的公司(www.ruc2n.com);(4)首次实现有机铁磁性。

目前,我们课题组主要研究能量转换材料。例如,利用机械化学制备氧还原反应、析氢反应、氮还原制氨的催化剂。我认为理想的氢载体是氨,将在不久的将来实现氢经济。

SMSC: How do you balance between work and life? What is your hobby?

Baek: I am mostly working seven days a week, unless I have family events on weekends.

My only hobby is playing golf, which I have enjoyed over twenty years. I think the ways of life and golf are similar. For example, playing golf requires a mind control not to risk reckless challenge, a strong mental not to be attracted by temptation, and a good plan to win the game.

我基本上一周工作七天,除非周末有家庭活动。我唯一的爱好是打高尔夫球,这已经有20多年了。我认为生活方式和高尔夫是相似的。例如,打高尔夫球需要集中精神,不冒险不鲁莽,强大的精神不被诱惑,和一个赢得比赛的好计划。

SMSC: What do you think is the most important characteristic for a researcher? Could you give some advice for researchers starting out in your field?

Baek: A researcher should have “passion” to realize a new idea for scientific leap. I open quote following example: assume that one has twenty candles. Burning one candle after another, one cannot enjoy well-cooked food even after burning all of them. Burning them all at the same time, one can enjoy well-cooked food. This is a “passion”. In addition to passion, if one has diligence and perseverance, one can be a good researcher.

研究者应该有实现科学飞跃的新想法的“激情”。我引用下面的例子:假设有20根蜡烛。一个接一个地燃烧蜡烛,即使把他们都烧了也不能享受煮熟的食物,。同时燃烧它们,就可以享受煮熟的食物。这是一种“激情”。除了热情,勤奋和毅力,也是成为一个好的研究者必备特质。

作者介绍

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Jong-Beom Baek is a professor/director at the School of Energy and Chemical Engineering/Center for Dimension-Controllable Organic Frameworks, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea. After awarding his Ph.D. degree from Polymer Science, University of Akron (USA, 1998), he joined the Wright-Patterson Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Then, he returned to his home country to take up a position as an assistant professor at Chungbuk National University in 2003, before moving to UNIST in 2008. His current research interests include the syntheses of two- and three-dimensional high-performance organic network structures and the chemical modifications of carbon-based materials for multifunctional applications, including energy conversion and storage. He has authored and co-authored over 220 peer-reviewed publications in the areas. And also, he has registered and filed over 70 international and domestic patents. Some of them have been transferred to an industry and started his own companies for commercialization.

中文翻译:苗骏