微/纳米结构的镍/铁基催化剂在光/电化学水氧化中的应用进展

Research News

Recent Development of Ni/Fe-Based Micro/Nanostructures toward Photo/Electrochemical Water Oxidation

Rui Gao and Dongpeng Yan

DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201900954

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER), as an important process involved in water splitting and rechargeable metal–air batteries, has drawn increasing attention in the context of clean energy generation and efficient energy storage. This review concerns the progress and new discoveries in the field of Ni/Fe-based micro/nanostructures toward electrochemical and photo- electrochemical (PEC) water oxidation during last few years. First, toward the design and construction of new electrocatalysis, different types of current Ni/ Fe-based compounds for OER are summarized. The mechanism studies of the active phases and positions of Ni/Fe-based micro/nanostructures are further introduced to understand the properties of catalytic active sites, which could facilitate further improving the performance of Ni/Fe-based OER electrocatalysts. Second, splitting water using sunlight with low overpotential is another important target in making solar-to-hydrogen micro/nanodevices, and thus attention is then focused on the development of several important Ni/ Fe-based PEC catalysts. Third, the recent theoretical calculations on the OER mechanism during water splitting and insights into electronic structures are analyzed; finally, the future trends and perspectives are also discussed briefly.

全球变暖问题与日俱增,其中一个主要原因在于:人类在长达一个世纪以来对化石燃料的无节制使用导致排放出大量的二氧化碳等多种温室气体。从清洁、可持续发展的角度看,水分解是一种低成本且环保的获取氢能的有效方法。而水氧化 (OER) 是光/电分解水的重要步骤。此外,OER也是可再生燃料电池和可充电金属空气电池的重要半反应。然而目前商业使用的OER催化剂主要集中在贵金属。这些催化剂普遍存在成分组成稀有和成本高等问题,不利于大规模实际应用于水分解。因此,探索并设计廉价的过渡金属催化剂用于OER已经得到了人们的广泛关注。从元素组成的角度分析,相较于贵金属催化剂,铁和镍金属是地壳中含量丰富的过渡金属元素,且具有良好的OER催化活性,因此目前已有大量科研工作者关注于设计和发展新一代廉价的微/纳米结构镍/铁基催化材料。

最近,北京师范大学化学学院闫东鹏教授课题组综述了微/纳米结构的镍/铁基催化剂在光/电水氧化中的应用,并展望了该领域面临的挑战和未来方向。

首先,针对新型电催化体系的设计与构建,文章总结了目前不同种类的镍/铁基化合物用于OER的发展历程,介绍了微/纳米结构的镍/铁基催化剂的活性位点和机理进展,为进一步提高镍/铁基OER电催化剂的性能提供了依据。其次,文章介绍了实现低过电位条件下太阳能分解水是有效利用太阳能和产生氢气的另一个重要目标,研究人员当前的注意力集中在几种重要的镍/铁基光电分解水催化剂的开发上。第三,文章介绍了最近对水分解过程中OER机理的理论计算研究进展和对催化剂电子结构的见解; 最后,讨论了该领域未来的趋势和前景。相关综述性论文以题为“Recent Development of Ni/Fe-Based Micro/Nanostructures toward Photo/Electrochemical Water Oxidation”发表在Advanced Energy Materials (DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201900954)上。